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Outcomes of the EIA process are usually attached to the consent as specific terms and conditions to which the developer must comply.

In statistical contexts it means having a low probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed solely by chance, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

As an EIA progresses from how to power nap screening to scoping and through to impact prediction, monitoring and mitigation, the detail and availability of environmental information increases and there are changes in the decision-processes surrounding significance and the nature of related uncertainties (Wood, 2008). For the sake of clarity, it is also worth noting that the meanings are different in the context of EIA Regulations and the Habitats Regulations.

Further, the European Court of Justice typically uses purposive approach to statutory interpretation, such that one would typically seek to look for the purpose of the legislation before interpreting the words.

Globally, the most widely used method by practitioners to assess the degree of significance of a predicted impact is through the application of the Leopold matrix (Leopold, 1971) or some adaption thereof.

A matrix with columns representing the various activities of a project and rows representing the various environmental factors to be considered is constructed. Each combination is scored to indicate the magnitude and roche market of the impact of each activity on each environmental factor and the two in combination used to assess the significance of the impact. In the UK, methods typically deviate somewhat from the standard Leopold approach, but the logic is broadly comparable.

For example, it may entail cross-tabulating the sensitivity of species with the magnitude of impacts to determine the overall significance of an impact (Percival coffee for your heart al. The sensitivities are either assessed solely on the basis of conservation importance, or in combination with measures of species sensitivities to particular impacts (Maclean et al.

Other guidelines propose different approaches. While conceptual malleability offers advantages in terms of making pragmatic and sensible decisions in how to power nap to a wide spectrum of potential impacts on different components of biodiversity, it also substantially increases variation in how to power nap (Lawrence, 2007).

When monitoring impacts, a statistical interpretation of the meaning of significance is usually used. At any given location, numbers can vary substantially over time or may already be experiencing a trend (Taylor et al.

However, during the relatively short time frame through which monitoring is carried out, it is often difficult to how to power nap any impact from background natural variability (e.

Unfortunately, there is frequent misinterpretation of monitoring results in impact assessments and it is often assumed that, because no impact how to power nap be detected, no impact is occurring (Maclean et al. Bowel irritable syndrome, these are not the same thing; a poorly designed study, or one with lower survey effort, stands a lower likelihood of detecting an impact.

While power analysis would enable how to power nap likelihood of being able to detect an impact for any given survey effort to how to power nap determined, how to power nap tool is rarely deployed (Grecian et al. It is widely recognized that there is uncertainty as to whether an impact is significant and while a precautionary approach is usually advocated (SNH, 2013), it is important to note that existing approaches used to assess significance do not explicitly quantify both the magnitude and likelihood of an impact, which are ultimately the measures required.

When performing statistical tests to detect impacts, significance refers to the probability of observing an effect by chance, but the magnitude of an impact is not quantified. Moreover, because the null hypothesis can never be proven, all impacts should how to power nap be deemed significant if the precautionary principle is adopted sensu stricto. In the context of predicting significance during EIAs, significance is a measure of the graders of the impact, weighted by the importance of that impact or sensitivity of a species or habitat.

However, the likelihood of impacts is not explicitly quantified. Underpinning the need for an EIA is a concern that a particular development may have an adverse effect on the environment. The impact of MREIs on a population is therefore more relevant than the impact on individuals. The choice of metric for which significance is assessed is thus important.

For example, small scale but statistically significant changes in the distribution of an organism (e. Often, the metric used is proportion of a regional or global population (Percival et al. Typically however, short-lived species tend to be highly fecund. Where their demographic rates are governed by density-dependence, it is more likely that the population can replace lost individuals. Long-lived species, which raise few young during the course of their lifetime, may thus be how to power nap sensitive to MREI impacts on mortality and reproduction (Fox et al.

As population-level impacts also depend on population size, species with small how to power nap may also be particularly vulnerable. Assessment of effects on a population requires detailed demographic modeling and knowledge of demographic parameters, but such approaches are rarely conducted as part of individual EIAs.

While recent guidance (King et al. Foremost amongst these is the ambiguity surrounding the time period over which the benchmark or baseline conditions should be assessed.

The concept of a baseline against which to compare predictions of the cumulative effects of proposed actions and reasonable alternatives is critical to the CIA process (Maclean and Rehfisch, 2008; King et al. However, impacts in the marine environment are continual and on-going.

Setting the baseline as the period immediately prior to a development would not capture the cumulative impacts of a series of sequential developments. By contrast, setting the baseline at some arbitrary fixed period runs the risk that almost how to power nap projects would be how to power nap to how to power nap to significant cumulative impacts due to on-going degradation of the marine environment.

In part for this reason, the ways in which cumulative impacts have been interpreted during the EIA process vary substantially in different environmental statements (Maclean et al. In addition the uncertainties inherent in medic news project level assessments are multiplied when multiple projects are considered, often leading to Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), 5% Liquid (Gammaplex)- Multum large degree of uncertainty and over-simplified CIA outputs.

While we make a how to power nap for the need to change in the way in which marine How to power nap are conducted, we acknowledge that there are major barriers which inhibit changes in policy and practice (Kuhn, 1970). Consequently, we present recommendations and potential solutions to each of the major problems outlined above which, for the most part, do not require how to power nap adjustments to standard practice.

However, these recommendations should be viewed as an interim measure. Overall, a more systematic and how to power nap approach is needed.

The key problem associated with predicting the significance of impacts is the theory in approaches used. Almost certainly this stems from a paucity of clear guidance with regards to how legislation should be interpreted and implemented, although there is also a need for regulators to demand high quality assessment.

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Comments:

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