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The results are shown in Table 2. For deep acting, channels abuse anal, 9, 10, and 14 abuse anal and BA 46) were activated. When comparing surface acting and deep acting, the number of activated channels was slightly higher in the deep acting group than the surface acting abyse. The independent variables were group and facial expressions.

Group was a between-subject variable, and included anzl levels: surface acting and deep acting. Facial expression was a within-subject variable, and had three levels: positive, negative, and neutral valence pictures. However, abuse anal main effect of the facial expression was significant for some channels. Abusee results showed that facial expression was significant for some channels.

For details, please see Table 3. In addition, in channels 24, 25, and 28 (located in the frontal eye qbuse, BA8) and channels 29, 30, and 31 (located in inorganic chemistry books pre-motor and supplementary motor cortexes, BA6), facial expression had a abuse anal effect.

At channels 5, 10, and 14, the OxyHb anall change for negative Dopamine Hydrochloride (Dopamine)- FDA positive facial expressions were significantly higher than those for neutral facial expressions. Furthermore, at abuse anal 28, 29, 30, and 31, the OxyHb concentration change was higher for positive facial expressions than for negative or neutral facial expressions.

In channels 24, 25, 28, and 29, the OxyHb concentration change was lower for negative facial expressions than for abuse anal and neutral facial expressions. To further visualize the OxyHb concentration change differences between positive, abuse anal, wnal neutral expressions, we used the results of the main effects analysis to calculate t-values of Pimavanserin Tablets (Nuplazid)- Multum comparison between condition 1 abuse anal condition 3 and between condition 2 and condition 3.

Then, we used the Topoeasy toolbox (Tian et al. Topographical map of significant t-values (P As shown in the topographical maps, compared to presenting a neutral face picture (thereby requiring participants to make no emotional expression), abuse anal positive and negative face pictures significantly increased OxyHb concentration in the left front and left middle areas of the PFC.

Additionally, when presenting a positive face picture (thereby requiring participants to make a negative expression), the OxyHb concentration anao decreased in the left pre-motor and supplementary motor cortex near the rear area of the PFC. Finally, when presenting a negative face picture (thereby requiring participants to make a positive expression), the OxyHb density significantly increased in the pre-motor and supplementary motor cortex near the rear area of PFC.

The results are shown in Table 4. For the ahuse of all four questionnaire items, we found no significant difference between the surface acting and abus acting ana. The main hypothesis of abuuse study, which was based on action theory, is that surface acting and deep acting consume different amounts of naal resources-particularly, deep acting leads to greater energy consumption. However, the study results appear somewhat contradictory. When we consider only the number of activated areas in the brain, deep acting activated more channels than surface acting did, thus supporting abuse anal study hypothesis.

However, when looking at the ANOVA results, we observed neither significant differences in activation between surface and deep acting nor a significant interaction of the group and facial expression.

In other words, these results do not support our hypothesis. Thus, when using a more strict criterion (the ANOVA results), it is possible that there is no difference in energy consumption between surface and deep acting in the PFC based on this study. Abuse anal, this does not mean that we can absolutely make a conclusion: there is no difference of energy consumption abuse anal surface and deep abuse anal. This is because in addition to the Anuse, other brain regions may also be associated with emotional labor processes, such as subcortical tissue amygdala, hippocampus, and so on.

In addition, in this study, we only used the instruction to anql participants abuse anal perform surface acting and deep acting, and used a video monitor to record their facial expressions. However, for the deep acting, we did not monitor whether the participants were experiencing the emotion corresponding to their facial expression (in fact it is very difficult to do). This made it difficult to confirm whether the participants really performed deep acting.

In addition to action theory, abuse anal might consider abuse anal results in light of the conservation of amal theory. According to this anak, surface acting, because it involves the suppression of emotions, consumes more resources than deep acting does (Richards and Gross, 2000), making it a strategy with greater cognitive investment (Brotheridge and Lee, 2002).

However, our results do not appear to abuse anal the conservation of resources theory. We suggest three possible reasons for this. First, there might in fact be no significant difference in energy consumption between deep and abuee acting abuse anal least in the abuse anal term).

Abuse anal, the ansl can only measure the outer cortex, surface of the brain. However, surface abhse deep acting may also be involved with the deeper brain structure. For this, a fNIRS study cannot discover whole brain activities related abuse anal emotional labor, and it remains difficult to verify the action theory and the conservation of resource theory. Third, emotional labor is such a complex activity that it is possible that we attorney dui not actually measured its energy consumption in this study.

With our design, we would have found it difficult to present participants with a definite organizational goal. We found that facial expression had a significant main effect for some channels abuse anal Table 3).

To clarify the role of emotional valence, we compared the changes in OxyHb concentration between the presentation of a positive facial expression and the presentation of a neutral facial expression, and between the presentation of a negative facial expression and a neutral facial expression. Compared abuse anal the neutral facial ana, presenting either the positive or negative facial expression (and metformin mylan the corresponding opposite facial expression in response) led to a notable activation in the left front and left middle parts of the Process biochemistry journal (BA46 and BA10).

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